Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - National Airspace System #

Introduction #

  • 2 categories of airspace
    • regulatory: Class: A, B, C, D, & E (controlled)
    • non regulatory: Class: G (uncontrolled)


  • NOTAM’s provide information from FAA about airspace
    • 1: Distant
    • 2: Flight Data Center
    • 3: Pointers
    • 4: Special Activity Airspace
    • 5: Military

Questions #

  • Most comprehensive information is given by US Chart Supplement
  • remote pics must check NOTAMS before flights
  • NOTAM will contain information about public gatherings of large groups
  • FDC NOTAMS usually contain temporary flight restrictions
  • Time-critical information is provided by NOTAMs
  • One purpose of issuing temporary flight restriction (TFR) is to protect public figures
  • TFR applies to all aircraft
  • FAA publications provide flight information and ATC procedure in the Aeronautical Information Manual

Airspace Classification #

  • many controlled airspace begins at either 700 or 1200 feet agl
    • 700 is magenta
    • 1200 is blue vignette
    • floors higher are by number
  • Class G (Uncontrolled) is usually 700 or 1200 AGL
  • Prohibited space : blocks airspace such as white house
  • Restricted : presence of unusual often invisible hazards to aircraft
  • Warning area : same as restricted but in international airspace
  • Alert area : high volume of pilot training or unusual type of aerial activity
  • MOA’s : airspace of separating military training from IFR traffic
  • MTR’s Routes for military low-altitude high-speed training


  • CLASS E AIRSPACE anywhere no magenta or blue - starting @ 1200ft AGL

  • CLASS G AIRSPACE - <700 Feet inside class E and up to 1200 anywhere outside

Questions #

No person may operate in class b without receiving ATC clearance
No remote PIC can operate a small unmanned aircraft in CLASS C without ATC authorization
Lateral dimensions of class D are based on each individual circumstance

What ATC Clearance is necessary to operate near Anderson? :: no ATC clearance required; class G airspace.

Onawa is in what class airspace? :: class G (not inside any shading or lines.)

SUAX is in what class airspace? :: Class D because it is surrounded by segmented blue lines.

NFE is in what class airspace? :: Class E because it is surrounded by magenta lines.

Are you able to travel this route without contacting ATC? :: no, because you pass through Echo Airspace & Class D airspace depicted by the dashed blue lines.

Are you able to travel this route w/o contacting ATC? :: yes entirely in class G airspace.

Exercise extreme caution when operating in a MOA
Prior to operating in a MOA refer to the legend for special use airspace phone number and contact the controlling agency for traffic.
Which frequency should be used as a CTAF (Common Traffic Advisory Frequency)?:: 122.8 MHz

Topography #

  • Prime meridian passes through Greenwhich, England, from here measures are made East & west.
  • Remote Pic should be familiar with all information in a sectional chart
  • each degree is divided into 60 minutes (’) and each minute into seconds (’’).

Questions #

  • Lines of longitude pass the equater at right angles
  • Airports with control towers underlying class B, C,D, & E are shown in blue.
  • Small red flag symbol represents a visual checkpoint for manned aircraft; expect higher volumes of air traffic to be there.
  • All parachute information in the US are in the Chart Supplement US
  • To contact ATC use Frequency starting with “CT”

Airport Operations #

  • remote pic must be aware of all traffic patterns near airports.
  • Remote pic must avoid operating anywhere that the presence may interfere with airpro operations.
  • Remote pic must yelid right-of-way
  • Remote pic should contact ATC as early as possible prior to operation in class B,C, & D & within lateral bounds.

Questions #

  • manned aircraft when approaching class G airspace w/o control tower will make all turns to the left unless otherwise indicated
  • Entries into traffic patterns by manned aircraft while descending should be avoided.
  • To enter airport SIDA you must have airport-issued/ approved ID

Airport Markings & Signs #

  • Runway numbers are mareked by the magnetic heading (180 degree = 18 on runway)
  • Runways with the same heading and multiple runways are marked with LEFT, RIGHT, or CENTER
  • Desginated beginning of the runway is called the threshold, thresholds that are not at the very beginning are called displaced thresholds.
  • Stopways are only for runoff and are marked by chevrons
  • Taxiways are identified with continuous yellow lines
  • Taxiway to runway may have a holding marker
  • Six types of signs are airports
    • mandatoy instruction sign: red background, white text
    • location sign: black with yellow yext
    • direction sign: yellow with black text
    • destination sign: yellow with black text + arrows ▶
    • information sign: yellow with black text
    • runway distance remaining: black with white text (indicates number of feet remaining)

Questions #

  • The numbers 9 and 27 on a runway indcate::087 degrees and 270 degrees
  • Turning on to a taxiway from another taxiway the directional sign is to indcate designation and direction of taxiway leading out of an intersection.
  • When approaching holding lines from the side with continuous lines, pilot should not cross w/o atc clearance
  • Runway hold position signs denotes protected area for aircraft approaching/departing runway.
  • Purpose of runway hold position is to hold aircraft short of the runway
  • Holding position signs have white inspection on red background
  • No entry signs are for areas where aircraft are prohibited from entering.
  • Aeronatuical Information Manual contains explanations of airport signs and markings
  • You are considered to be clear of all runways when you are on double soild yellow lines

Collision Avoidance #

  • Aircraft that appear to have no lateral or vertical motion, but an increase in size are heading to you. take evasive action
  • avoid operations near moored ballons and helicopters; helicopters usually operate near wire rich areas
  • Static electricity can build up when aircraft comes in contact with rain, snow, fog, sleet, hail volcanic ash & dust. (p-static)
  • Aircraft without good static discharging may develop a corona which may discharge from any extremity.
  • Visible dicharge of static electricity is referred to as “st Elmo’s fire”
  • FAA prohibit the disruption of aviation activity by any person on the ground or in the air from lasers.
  • When laser operations are taken place NOTAM’s are issued for the aviaction community.
  • Lasers are able to create temporary vision impariments miels from location and they may cause permanent eye damage.
  • Power plants or idustrial facilities may exahuset thermal plumes causing unstable casses and air disturbance.
  • When a plume is visible be aware that the plume may have visible and invisibel characteristics
  • Skeletal structures may have guy wires that extend 1500 feet, they should be avoided by 2000 feet
  • Collisions with wildlife should be reported to the FAA via (wildlife strike report system)

Questions #

  • Most midair collisiosn occur during clear days
  • Remote pilots should systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short interverals when scanning for traffic
  • Guy wires, which support antenna towers, should be avoided by at least 2000 feet
  • Remote pilots should rely on visual scanning for wire strike avoidance
  • remote pic should file a wildlife strike report when they collide with a bird or wild life.
  • Most effective way to scan for traffic would be to use 10 degree increments of the sky
  • When approaching a aircraft head on both pilots should adjust course to the right.