Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Regulations #

Remote Pilot Certification #

  • Certificate lists level & defines privileges & limitations of holder (remote pilot, private pilot, instructor, or ATP)
    • Will also include category of aircraft in which pilot is qualified
  • sUAS operation may involve 1+ team members.
    • Remote PIC
    • Person Manipulation
    • VO (Visual Line Of Sight
  • Remote PIC is responsible for & final authority of the operation.
    • Person manipulation can control flight operation under certain condition

Questions #

  • Remote pilot application must be submitted to Designated Pilot Examiner
  • Certification must be retrained every 24months
  • All sUAS crew members must be free of any physical or mental condition that would interfere with safe operation
  • A pilot having a headache with blurred vision would be disqualified as remote pilot

Remote Pilot Privileges #

  • Remote pilot must be designated before each flight & can change mid flight
  • Ensure operation poses no undue hazard to people, property, or aircraft in event of loss of control
  • Operate sUA to ensure compliance with all provisions and regulations
  • Person may not operate or act as Remote PIC of more than 1 UA at a time.
    • Part 107 allows transfer of control between pilots aslong as they maintain VLOS & without loss of control

Questions #

  • Remote PIC is responsible for ensuring enough crewmember for a given sUAS operation
  • Remote PIC is responsible for preventing hazardous situation before an accident occurs
  • Remote PIC must hold remote pilot certificate with sUAS rating
  • In a commercial operation the Remote PIC is responsible for briefing all participants about emergency procedures.
  • Remote PIC may operate only 1 sUAS at a time

Supporting Crew Roles #

  • Anyone may operate the controls as long as they are directly supervised by a remote PIC & the remote PIC has ability to take direct control.
    • by buddy box
    • by physically taking controls
    • automation system that puts sUA in “safe mode”
  • Autonomous operation is when autopilot performs functions w/o direct input
    • When sUA is flying autonomously the Remote PIC should be able to change routing or altitude or command aircraft to land immediately
  • The role of VO is to alert crew about hazards
    • Remote PIC may use 0+ VO’s or
    • VO’s must see continually and sufficiently
    • Posses a mean to communicate sUAS position to Remote PIC

Questions #

  • Person manipulating controls must be under direct supervision of REMOTE PIC
  • Person w/o Remote Pilot Certification may operate sUAS under direct supervision of Remote PIC

Falsification, Reproduction, or Alteration #

  • FAA may take appropriate actions against an sUAS owner, operator, Remote PIC, or anyone else who fraudulently provides false records.

Questions #

Maximum penalty for falsification of records is suspension of revocation of any certificate held

Accident Reporting #

  • Remote PIC must report any sUAS accident to the FAA within 10 days of operation of any:
    • serious injury to person or loss of consciousness
    • damage to property & cost to replace/fix is >$500
  • Serious injury:
    • Head trauma
    • broken bones
    • laceration to skin that require suturing

Questions #

  • You must report within 10 days when there is a sUAS accident

FAA Inspections #

  • Must make available upon request
    • sUAS for inspection or testing
    • required documents is physically or electronically available
      • pilot certification
      • aircraft registration

Questions #

  • upon request you must present your remote pilot certificate to a FAA inspector
  • must present pilots license to anyone in authorized representative of the administrator of department of transportation

sUAS Registration #

  • Most sUAS must be registered with FAA prior to operation in NAS
    • must register if >0.55 lbs & <55 lbs
    • Certificate expires 3 years after date of issue

Questions #

  • Must register if over 0.55 lbs and under 55 lbs
  • sUAS Registration lasts 3 years
  • Owner may not be permitted to register if under 13 years old
  • Owner may operate sUAS if possessing either US Registration or Foregin Regisstration

Remote Identification #

  • Remote id is the ability to provide identification and location information via wifi/bluetooth
  • Since Sept 16, 2023 no person may operate in airspace unless meeting the requirements of standard remote identfication or alternate remote identfication unless authorized by the FAA
  • ID’s must broadcast from takeoff to shutdown - in event of failure pilot must land asap

Questions #

  • If operating with remote identfication broadcast module then the pilot must be restricted to visual line of sight
  • Certificate of Aircraft Registration must list aircraft’s serial number
  • If operation is conducted for aueronautical research then you are allowed to fly without remote identification capability
  • A sUAS equpped with ADS-B does not meet the requirements for remote ID - (ADS-B: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast)

Preflight Actions & Inspection #

  • Remote Pic is responbile to :
    • Check local weather
    • airspace
    • ground hazards
    • inform crewmembers about operation
    • ensure control links are working properly
    • ensure there is enough power for the sUAS
    • ensure attachments are secure
    • maintain documents required in the event of FAA inspections
      • Remote PIC Certificate
      • Aircraft Registration (if required)
      • Certificate of Waiver (if applicable)

Questions #

  • Remote PIC is responsible for ensuring the aircraft is in safe operating condition.
  • Accessing operating environment, airspace, any flight restrictions, & location of persons & property of surface is required of the pilot before flight

Carriage of Hazardous Material #

  • Hazardous material are not allowed on sUAS except the batteries powering it.
    • Hazardous : capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, & property when transported in commerce

Questions #

  • Lithium batteries used to power the sUAS are the only exception to the carraige of hazardous material

Operations at Night #

  • operations conducted at night or cibil twilight must be equipped with anti-collision lights visible for 3 SM (Statue Mile)
  • Civil twilight: 30minutes after sunset to 30minutes before sunrise

Questions #

  • Lighted anti-collision lights are required 30 minutes after official sunset
  • A pilot may reduce intensity of the anti-collision lights when it is in the interest of safety to dim the lights
  • If there are high intensity pulsating lights the Remote PIC must determine if they are turned on full strength
  • The backlighting should be set to pulsating mode for night flight

Visual Line of Sight #

  • sUAS must remain within VLOS of flight crewmembers unaided by any device
  • sUAS must remain close the Control Station to ensure proper visibility
  • Remote PIC may temporairly lose vLOS but must retain the capaibiltiy to return to it

Questions #

  • Using binoculars to maintain VLOS is not compliant with part 107
  • Flight routes must be rerouted if they cannot maintain VLOS

Operation Limitations #

  • sUAS cannot fly flaster than 100mph
  • Cannot fly higher than 400feet about ground level unless flown within a 400 foot radius of a structure and 400feet above that structure
  • Minimum visibility must be no less than 3 statue miles
  • Minimum distance from clouds must be no lses than 500 feet below a cloud and 2,000 feet horizontally

Questions #

  • You can operate at a maximum of 400ft altitude, unless above a structure
  • Maximum airspeed 100mph for sUAS operations
  • Maximum ground speed for sUAS is 87 knots
  • Above Ground Limit is 900 foot ceiling and 3 mile visibility
  • Operating above a tower that is 1,000 feet, the AGL limit is 1,400 feet

Right of way Rules #

  • no Remote PIC may operate in a manner that interferes with airports, heliport, or seaplane base.
  • Remote PIC is responsible to maintain clear of & yield to right of way to all other aircraft
    • this is called see and avoid
  • know the location of his sUA
  • be aware of other aircraft or persons in the vicinity of the operating area

Questions #

  • Airplane has right of way over other traffic
  • Pilot should adjust sUAS course if collision is anticipated.
  • Remote PIC must yield to hot air balloon (all other aircraft, manned or unmanned)
  • Remote PIC diligence may be used to assist in compliance with see and avoid requirements

Operation over Human Beings #

  • no person may operate an sUAS over human beings unless
    • human is participating in operation
    • human is located under covered structure or stationary vehicles
    • operation meets the requirements of
      • cat 1 107.110
      • cat 2 107.115
      • cat 3 107.125
      • cat 4 107.140
  • no person may operate over a human being located inside a moving vehicle unless it meets one of the four category
    • to conduct cat 1-3 sUAS must remain within or over closed/restricted site & humans are made aware of sUAS may fly over them & may not maintain flight over moving vehicle
    • to conduct cat 4 the sUAS must have air worthiness certificate and accordance with operating limitations in approved flight manual

Questions #

  • remote PIC must make a plan to keep non-participants clear, indor, or under cover prior to each flight
  • to conduct cat 1 operations sUA must be 0.55 lbs or less
  • to conduct cat 4 operation sUA must have airworthiness certificate issued by FAA

Operations from Moving Vehicles #

  • Operation from moving aircraft is prohibited, boat & land is acceptable
  • Operation from vehicles subject to same restrictions as all other operations
  • No reckless operation, the driver must not be the remote PIC

Questions #

  • you may operate sUAS from moving land or water vehicle over a sparsely populated or unpopulated area
  • categories of operation require FAA accepted current DOC: Category 2 & 3

Privacy & other Considerations #

  • No person may operate careless or reckless manner that would endanger life or property
  • no item may be dropped that creates undue hazard to person or property

Alcohol & Drugs #

  • does not allow person to manipulate controls while their judgment is impaired
  • prohibited to operate controls, vo, or other crewmember if they
    • consumed alcohol
    • is using a drug that affects mental or physical capability

Questions #

  • person may not be crewmember if they consumed alcohol within 8 hours
  • No person may be crewmember if blood alcohol level is above 0.04 % by weight
  • Law enforcement submits your alcohol test, consequence is will have their sUAS rating suspended or revoked
  • Marijuana conviction require 1 year before reapplying
  • If you are caught smoking marijuana the FAA issues immediate suspension or revocation

Change of Address #

  • must notify FAA Airman’s Certification Branch within 30 days if change of address

Waivers #

  • If the remote pic determines he cannot conduct with the structure of Part 107 he is responsible for apply for a certificate of wavier (CoW) & proposing a safer alternative to the operation

Questions #

  • FAA may approve application after it has been determined “safely conductible under terms of the waiver”